Ayurvedic medicine has its origins in the Vedas; however, much of the earlier teachings were mostly verbal and have been lost or unavailable to mankind. Systemic development in Ayurveda started much later and include the famous Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, which are known to have surfaced somewhere between 6th century BC and 3rd century BC.
The former text is a collection of all the medical conditions, their pathogenesis, etymology and treatment while the latter talks about surgeries and conditions of specific organs such as ears, eyes etc.
With time, many more texts were published, which start from where the previous two left. They also added new diseases, drugs and treatments that kept on being developed with time.